to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the
National Flag and National Anthem;
Of United Nations
WE, THE PEOPLE
OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN
SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE , social , economic
LIBERTY, of thought ,
expression, belief , faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and
and to promote among them
FRATERNITY assuring the
dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this
twenty-sixth day of November, 1949 do HEREBY ADOPT , ENACT AND GIVE TO
OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
India’s foreign policy has to
meet the external ramifications of many serious and volatile events, while
at the same time addressing the problems and issues generated by external
events, emerging interstate equations of important countries and
their attitudes towards issues affecting India’s basic concerns
and interests. The year 1993 was characterized by a complex international
situation in which India’s foreign policy had to be fashioned and implemented.
The year commenced in an atmosphere of challenges for India’s foreign relations.
(For details refer Book)
FLAG : The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour
of deep saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green
at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of the width of the Flag to
its length is two to three. In the Centre of the white band is a wheel,
in navy blue, which represents the Chakra. Its design is that of the wheel
(Chakra) which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka.
The wheel has 24 spokes.
The design of the National Flag
was adopted by Constituent Assembly of India on 22nd July 1947. Its use
and display are regulated by a code.
The importance of the National
Flag can be aptly described in the words of Sarojini Naidu who described
in the Constituent Assembly(For details refer Book)
EMBLEM: The State Emblem of Indian is
an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka as preserved in the
Sarnath museum. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to
back, mounted on an abacus with a Frieze carrying sculptures in high relief
of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening
wheels (Chakras) over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block
of polished sandstone the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma
In the State Emblem adopted
by the Government of India on 26th January. 1950, only three lions are
visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief
in the centre of the abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the
left and the outlines of the other wheels on the extreme right and left.
The bell shaped lotus has been omitted. The words, Satyameva Jayate, from
the Mundaka Upanishad meaning “Truth alone triumphs” are inscribed below
the abacus in Devanagari script.
ANTHEM : National Anthem is heart and soul
of Indian culture. Rabindranath Tagore’s song Jana-gana-mana was adopted
by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24th January
1950. It was first sung on 27th December 1911 at the Calcutta session of
the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas.
The first stanza constitutes the full version of the National Anthem. It
Tava subha name jage
Tava subha asisa mage
Gahe tava jaya-gatha.
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he
Jaya, jaya, jaya, jaya he.
hear the National Anthem click here)
music of National Anthem click here)
The following is Tagore’s English
rendering of the stanza :
Thou art the ruler of the minds
of all people
Dispenser of India’s destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of
the Punjab, Sind , Gujarat and Maratha
of the Dravid and Orissa and
It echoes in the hills of the
Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of the Jamuna and Ganges and
is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings
and sing thy praise
the saving of all people waits
in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India’s destiny,
Victory, Victory, Victory
SONG: The song Vande Mataram composed by Bankimchandra
Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in the struggle for
freedom. It has an equal status with Jana-gana-mana. The first political
occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress.
The following is the text of its first stanza :
Vande Mataram !
Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja
Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim
Sukhdam varadam, Mataram
English translation of the stanza
rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose is :
I bow to thee, Mother,
cool with the winds of the south
dark with the crops of the harvests,
The Mother !
Her nights rejoicing in the
glory of the moonlight
her lands clothed beautifully
with her trees in flowering bloom
sweet of laughter, sweet of
The Mother, giver of boons,
giver of bliss
CALENDAR: National Calendar
based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year
of 365 days adopted from 22 March 1957 along with Gregorian calendar for
the following official purposes (i) Gazette of India, (ii) news broadcast
by All India Radio (iii) calendars issued by the Government of India and
(iv) Government communications addressed to the members of public.
Dates of the national calendar
have a permanent correspondence with dates of Gregorian calendar : I Chaitra
falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.
History of 50 years of United
Nations Organization shows that it has been a very useful Organization.
It should continue with new guidelines and, therefore, it is necessary
to have new measures both for United States as well as international initiative
for General Assembly. He (Mr. Bill Clinton) said that all nations should
support new initiative to fight international terrorism, narcotics and
international money laundering an illegal arm network. He further said
that all countries have to take steps to fight those nations which indulge
and encourage ‘‘Counter Terrorism’’ to launch with a Anti Narcotics Offences
and form a worldwide Police-force Partnership to target the sources that
indulge in illegal supply of arms and deadly nuclear and biological components.
In order to achieve this object, countries like Iran, Iraq, Libya and Sudan
should turn away from the path of terrorism and fulfill objects mentioned
JUBILEE OF INDEPENDENCE:
On 15th August 1998, While
addressing the nation after unfurling the tricolour for the first time
, Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee , The Prime Minister of India said ,
" Independence, National Integration, Democracy and Secularism are
complementary to each other". He promised to ensure full security
to minorities and their participation in the development. He referred
to the nuclear test at Pokhran and reiterated India's Commitment to world
peace and disarmament. He added that India has voluntarily declared a unilateral
moratorium on further tests and said that nuclear arms will never to used
to attack anyone.