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(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and National Anthem;
This Chapter Contains:-

Related Links:
Directive Principles :
Charter Of United Nations

The Preamble
 WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA,  having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

 JUSTICE , social , economic and political:
 LIBERTY, of thought , expression, belief , faith and worship;
 EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;
 and to promote among them all
 FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and unity and integrity of the Nation;


India’s foreign policy has to meet the external ramifications of many serious and volatile events, while at the same time addressing the problems and issues generated by external events, emerging interstate equations of important  countries and their  attitudes towards  issues affecting India’s basic concerns and interests. The year 1993 was characterized by a complex international situation in which India’s foreign policy had to be fashioned and implemented. The year commenced in an atmosphere of challenges for India’s foreign relations.
(For details refer Book)

NATIONAL FLAG : The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. The ratio of the width of the Flag to its length is two to three. In the Centre of the white band is a wheel, in navy blue, which represents the Chakra. Its design is that of the wheel (Chakra) which appears on the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka. The wheel has 24 spokes.
The design of the National Flag was adopted by Constituent Assembly of India on 22nd July 1947. Its use and display are regulated by a code.
The importance of the National Flag can be aptly described in the words of Sarojini Naidu who described in the Constituent Assembly(For details refer Book)

STATE EMBLEM:  The State Emblem of Indian is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion Capital of Ashoka as preserved in the Sarnath museum. In the original, there are four lions, standing back to back, mounted on an abacus with a Frieze carrying sculptures in high relief of an elephant, a galloping horse, a bull and a lion separated by intervening wheels (Chakras) over a bell-shaped lotus. Carved out of a single block of polished sandstone the Capital is crowned by the Wheel of the Law (Dharma Chakra).
In the State Emblem adopted by the Government of India on 26th January. 1950, only three lions are visible, the fourth being hidden from view. The wheel appears in relief in the centre of the abacus with a bull on the right and a horse on the left and the outlines of the other wheels on the extreme right and left. The bell shaped lotus has been omitted. The words, Satyameva Jayate, from the Mundaka Upanishad meaning “Truth alone triumphs” are inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script.

NATIONAL ANTHEM : National Anthem is heart and soul of Indian culture. Rabindranath Tagore’s song Jana-gana-mana was adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the National Anthem of India on 24th January 1950. It was first sung on 27th December 1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress. The complete song consists of five stanzas. The first stanza constitutes the full version of the National Anthem. It reads :
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka Jaya he
Tava subha name jage
Tava subha asisa mage
Gahe tava jaya-gatha.
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Bharata Bhagya-vidhata
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he
Jaya, jaya, jaya, jaya he.

(To hear the National Anthem click here)

(To hear music of National Anthem click here)

The following is Tagore’s English rendering of the stanza :
Thou art the ruler of the minds of all people
Dispenser of India’s destiny.
Thy name rouses the hearts of the Punjab, Sind , Gujarat and Maratha
of the Dravid and Orissa and Bengal
It echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of the Jamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
They pray for thy blessings and sing thy praise
the saving of all people waits in thy hand,
Thou dispenser of India’s destiny,
 Victory, Victory, Victory to thee.

NATIONAL SONG: The song Vande Mataram composed by Bankimchandra Chatterji, was a source of inspiration to the people in the struggle for freedom. It has an equal status  with Jana-gana-mana. The first political occasion when it was sung was the 1896 session of the Indian National Congress. The following is the text of its first stanza :

Vande Mataram !
Sujalam, suphalam, malayaja shitalam,
Shasyashyamalam, Mataram!
Shubhrajyothsna pulakitayaminim
Phullakusumita drumadala shobinim
Suhasinim sumadhura bhashinim
Sukhdam varadam, Mataram !

English translation of the stanza rendered by Sri Aurobindo in prose is :
I bow to thee, Mother,
richly-watered, richly-fruited
cool with the winds of the south
dark with the crops of the harvests,
The Mother !
Her nights rejoicing in the glory of the moonlight
her lands clothed beautifully with her trees in flowering bloom
sweet of laughter, sweet of speech
The Mother, giver of boons, giver of bliss

NATIONAL CALENDAR:    National Calendar based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days adopted from 22 March 1957 along with Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes (i) Gazette of India, (ii) news broadcast by All India Radio (iii) calendars issued by the Government of India and (iv) Government communications addressed to the members of public.
Dates of the national calendar have a permanent correspondence with dates of Gregorian calendar : I Chaitra falling on 22 March normally and on 21 March in leap year.

History of 50 years of United Nations Organization shows that it has been a very useful Organization. It should continue with new guidelines and, therefore, it is necessary to have new measures both for United States as well as international initiative for General Assembly. He (Mr. Bill Clinton) said that all nations should support new initiative to fight international terrorism, narcotics and international money laundering an illegal arm network. He further said that all countries have to take steps to fight those nations which indulge and encourage ‘‘Counter Terrorism’’ to launch with a Anti Narcotics Offences and form a worldwide Police-force Partnership to target the sources that indulge in illegal supply of arms and deadly nuclear and biological components. In order to achieve this object, countries like Iran, Iraq, Libya and Sudan should turn away from the path of terrorism and fulfill objects mentioned in U.N.

 On 15th August 1998, While addressing the nation after unfurling the tricolour for the first time ,  Shri Atal Behari Vajpayee , The Prime Minister of India said , " Independence, National Integration, Democracy and Secularism  are complementary to each other".  He promised to ensure full security to minorities and their participation in  the development. He referred to the nuclear test at Pokhran and reiterated India's Commitment to world peace and disarmament. He added that India has voluntarily declared a unilateral moratorium on further tests and said that nuclear arms will never to used to attack anyone.